Saint Adalbert Cemetery and Mausoleums
“Bohemian Catholic” “Bohemian Polish” "Old Bohemian"
“Cesko-Polsky katholicy hrbitov”
Published in the Koreny, Journal of the Czech and Slovak Genealogy Society of Illinois – Fall 1998 – Article written by Paul Nemecek
The St. Adalbert Bohemian – Polish Catholic Cemetery in Chicago
The beginning of the St. Adalbert (Sv. Vojtecha) Cemetery, named after a tenth century Bishop of Prague and Patron Saint of Poland, dates back to when Rev. Joseph Molitor, Rev. William Coka and Rev. Adolph Bakenowski acquired, on August 16, 1872, for $5190, a deed to twelve acres of land from John and Elizabeth Schumacher. They in turn deeded the land to the Catholic Bishop of Chicago. The wave of arriving immigrants, after living their lives in parish churches, found a need for land to serve as a cemetery. This original Czech settlement was located just south of the city cemetery, later a city park, named after the deceased president, Abraham Lincoln. At. Adalbert, at 6800 North Milwaukee Avenue in the town of Niles (Cook County), was one of the first cemeteries in the Chicago area to serve the ethnic community. Prior to the establishment of St. Adalbert cemetery, Rosehill Cemetery (1859), St. Boniface Cemetery (1863, German) and Oakwoods Cemetery (1864).
Pastors at Bohemian and Polish parishes in Chicago, unable to support a cemetery for their own individual parishes, joined together on April 18, 1872 to plan a shared cemetery. This first cemetery was organized as the Bohemian Polish Catholic Cemetery Society of Chicago (Cesko-Polsky katolicy hrbitov). Early burial records (earliest available are 1886) have been combined with those of St. Adalbert. The cemetery association incorporation document, dated May 5, 1876, and recorded November 5, 1885 shows the directors for the first year were: Rt. Rev. Thomas Foley, Bishop of Chicago, Rev. Vincent Barzynski, pastor, St. Stanislaus Kosta, Rev. William Coka, pastor, St. John Nepomucene Church, Rev. Dominick Majer, pastor, St. Adalbert Church, Rev. Joseph Molitor, pastor, St. Wenceslaus Church. Other directors were: Stanislaus Lasczynski, Joseph Roubek, Paul Szeda, an John Tryams. The document was signed by John Barcznek, Peter Koilbassa, and Rev. Joseph Molitor.
Over the years the original “parish cemetery” increased from an initial size of twelve acres in 1872 to its present size of two hundred fifty acres. It is located on a major thoroughfare that ran through the heart of the early Polish community. In the period since 1872 over a quarter of a million people have been interred in the cemetery, with some 95 percent of them being of Polish descent.
The first chapel in the cemetery, Chapel Sv. Vojtecha, as shown on the illustration on the back cover, was built of red brick ornamented with a small wooden steeple. A later chapel was built in 1905. Major renovations in the cemetery were undertaken in 1923. During the days of horse and buggy, Milwaukee Avenue was unpaved beyond Lawrence Avenue and funeral carriages coming down the badly rutted dirt road frequently became mired in the mud. The road was later planked, and eventually paved. Limestone monuments in the oldest section of the cemetery have been worn almost completely smooth by the corrosive action of the elements. Areas 1,2,34, and 7 (shown on cemetery map) hold the oldest burials. Most of the early plots were purchased through individual parish churches and many of the deeds are signed Rev. Francis Bobal, Rev. William Coka, or Rev. Joseph Molitor “by authority of the Catholic Bishop.” Rev. Bobal was pastor of St. John Nepomucene from 1877 to 1908. He was then transferred to St. Ludmilla Church.
The foremost Czech families have lots or graves here. Among the best known oldest families are monuments with the names of Kubin, Salek, Taraba and Donat. Jan Kalal, an early philanthropic worker who was employed twenty two years by the firm of Harvey and Brown also has a monument there. He was very well known and loved by the Czech workingmen. In addition there are lots ornamented with the fine monuments of Podlesak, M. Brichacek, Frantisek and Antonin Kruber, Droby, M. Cada, Vilim Putta, Jos. Smolik, Jan Houdek, Kosner and Sladek. In a newer section opened in the 1890’s are found the monuments of the Klouba, Alexa, Sebek, Horecky, Friedly, Nedbal and Mizera families.
One of the significant monuments in the cemetery is the bronze war memorial saluting men of the army, navy, marines and Haller’s Army. Haller’s Army was the name given a group of Polish immigrants who volunteered during World War 1 to leave the United States in order to help the Polish army in its struggle against the German forces in France. National recruiting attracted thousands of men, who fought under General Jozef Haller to regain Polish territory. Also in the cemetery is the family crypt of George S. Hallas, late owner of the Chicago Bears football team. The father of George Hallas was an immigrant tailor from Pilsen, Bohemia.
Accompanying this article (but not in this web page reprint) is a copy of a typical Physicians Certificate of Death, issued in 1888. Note on line twelve the place of burial is indicated as “Bohemian Catholic” cemetery – one of the early names representing this cemetery. Other early death certificates indicate burials at the “Bohemian Polish” or “Old Bohemian” cemetery. Also the obituary shown below from the 1885 Czech newspaper “Svornost” (Chicago) indicates burial at “Cesko-Polsky katholicy hrbitov”. Obituaries as late as 1894 were located which indicated burial at Cesko Polsky Catholic Cemetery. Today it is known as Saint Adalbert Cemetery and Mausoleums, and is owned and operated by the Catholic Bishop of Chicago.
Niles Centennial History – 1899 – 1999 – Pages 31 - 32
One of the largest cemeteries in the Archdiocese of Chicago, St. Adalbert's, is located in Niles. It currently occupies 250 acres. Current interments average about 2,000 annually with total interments, since the cemetery was organized in 1872, approaching 300,000. In 1918, the year of the great flu epidemic, 4,000 burials took place. During the 1970s annual interments were about 2,600. In October 1872 Father Adolph Bakanowski, C.R., pastor of the first and largest Catholic parish, St. Stanislaus Kostka, serving the newly arriving Polish immigrants to Chicago, and Father Joseph Molitor, pastor of St. Wenceslaus Bohemian Parish, joined forces in purchasing 21acres of land for the purpose of a common cemetery in Niles, Illinois, at a cost of $5,500. Father Bakanowski delivered a Polish sermon and Father William Coka gave an address in the Czech language. The total amount of acres purchased in the early years of the cemetery development was much larger than the original 21 acres. In presenting a thesis to Loyola University on St. Hedwig's Orphanage, the author mentions that "The committee next turned to the managers of the Polish-Bohemian cemeteries from whom they sought seventeen acres of land located at 72nd and Niles Road, which had just been purchased for $7,500. The requested land was donated (in 1907) by these managers after discussing the transaction with all the pastors. A sum of $3,000 was paid out of the cemetery's treasury to the Bohemian pastors so they could Jay no further claim to the land." The intersection of 72nd and Niles Road is today's intersection of Harlem and Touhy where St. Hedwig's Orphanage was built a few years later. The Dziennik Chicagoski, metropolitan daily newspaper of the Congregation of the Resurrection (C.R.), would write in 1945, "At the very outset, the Resurrectionists held the admin-istrative posts on the Polis h-Bohemian cemetery board of directors. The office of president, sec-retary, treasurer, and manager was (sic?) usually assumed by a Resurrectionist." Father Bakanowski returned to Poland in 1873. His successor as pastor at St. Stanislaus Kostka was Rev. Vincent Michael Barzynski, C.R. In a biographical listing of members of the Congregation of the Resurrection, Barzynski is mentioned as a "promoter (of the) St. Adalbert Cemetery, Niles, Illinois, 1874-1899 and President, Administrative Board, Polish-Bohemian Cemeteries, Archdiocese of Chicago: ?- 1896." This same reference continues, "In grateful recognition of Father Barzynski's contribution to the development of the Polish American Community ... his many friends and sympathizers, on the second anniversary of his death, erected on his grave at St. Adalbert's Cemetery, Niles, Illinois, an imposing monument consisting of the Resurrected Christ atop a 20-foot column with a bust of Father Barzynski and a dedicatory plaque at the base." A mausoleum was erected at the site and, after it was expanded in 1925, became the C.R. mausoleum for burials of members of the Congregation of the Resurrection. Several Czech sources acknowledged that Rev. Joseph Molitor was the source for much antagonism in the Czech community in the early years of the cemetery's existence. Many in the Czech ethnic group changed planned burials at St. Adalbert's Cemetery. Two years after the ceme-tery opened, Rev. Molitor refused a Catholic burial to a woman, claimed Molitor, who had not fulfilled her sacramental obligation of confession. This action led to the formation of the Bohemian National Cemetery a few years after St. Adalbert's was organized.
Nevertheless, many Catholics active within the Czech community were buried at St. Adalbert's over the years. An active Czech-Polish connection was cultivated. Representatives of the Czech community were brought into the administration of the cemetery well into the 20th century. The name, Czech Polish Cemetery, current officials at St. Adalbert's state, was printed on many burial documents during the first 50 years of the cemetery's existence. George Halas, a prominent member of the Czech community and owner and coach of the Chicago Bears, was buried at St. Adalbert's. The name of St. Adalbert was important to both the Czech and Polish communities. St. Adalbert was a Czech saint who left his homeland to evangelize the poles in the north. St. Adalbert's Church, in 1873, was one of the first churches organized in Chicago which served the Polish American community. Before coming to the Chicago area and taking over the pastorate of St. Stanislaus Kostka in 1974, Father Barzynski founded the St. Adalbert Fraternal Aid Society in San Antonio, Texas, in 1868. In The Dictionary of American Resurrectionists, 1865-1965, a rather comprehensive listing of all the offices occupied by members of the Congregation of the Resurrection is provided. Several examples are cited to reflect the influence of the Congregation of the Resurrection on the development of St. Adalbert's: Rev. John Kasprzycki, C.R., was the manager of St. Adalbert's in 1903-1904; Rev. Francis Gordon, C.R., was the manager of St. Adalbert's Cemetery between 1904 and 1911. In 1909 he was selected by the archdiocese of Chicago administrative board of the Polish-Bohemian-Slovak Cemeteries to compile the bylaws regulating the use of these cemeteries. Rev. Lawrence Usdrowski, C.R., filled the position as manager in 1941. In 1946, Rev. John Grabowski, C.R., was the manager. In 1949, the manager was Rev. Jerome Klingspom , C.R. As late as 1954, Rev. Stanislaus Duda, C.R., was listed as the manager of St. Adalbert's Cemetery. Over the years numerous members of the Congregation of the Resurrection occupied positions on the administrative board of the Polish-Bohemian-Slovak Cemeteries (St. Adalbert's, Holy Cross, and Resurrection) of the Archdiocese of Chicago. Information obtained from St. Adalbert's explains the administrative structure of the cemetery somewhat differently: "For many years, directors of the cemeteries were the pastors of the Polish, Czech and Slovak parishes of the Archdiocese and those directors appointed a board to administer the affairs of the cemetery. On this administrative board was one member who acted in the capacity of an executive director. The first such director in the early days of St. Adalbert's was Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thomas Bona, who had the longest record of association with the cemeteries of any priest in the archdiocese. He was appointed in 1912 and served continuously until his death in 1950, a period of 33 years. Msgr. John Zelezinski succeeded Msgr. Bona, and upon Zelezinski's death in 1957, Msgr. Edward E. Plawinski was appointed. In 1965, at the time of coordination of the Catholic Cemeteries of the Archdiocese, Msgr. Plawinski became one of the four priest directors." Sources from the cemetery also cite the importance of the superintendent: "Julius Szatkowski ... was appointed in 1921 and served most years in that position. He was instrumental in purchasing much of the land for ... St. Adalbert .... In 1951 he was succeeded by Cass E. Gramza (who) was superintendent...until his death in 1968. (In 1972 the) superintendent, now called sexton, (was) Adam Bona, Jr." Since 1917 the sextons at St. Adalbert's were: Ron Niemer, 1977-1982; John Jacek, 1982-1991; Rich Kwazniak, 1991- 1992; Ted Ratajchek, 1992-1994; Randy Wisowaty, 1994-1995; Tom Collins, 1995-1997. The title of the administrator was changed in 1997 to general manager. John Minogue was appointed general manager in 1997. The Archdiocesan Cemetery Board of Directors governs St. Adalbert's Cemetery and all other Catholic cemeteries in the archdiocese.
Decoration Day in Our Catholic Cemeteries St. Adalbert Cemetery
Early in the morning of Decoration Day the Northwestern Depot on Clybourn Avenue was filled with huge crowds of people, some in civilian clothes and some in uniforms, who arrived in a procession and boarded the train to Norwood Park. From there, our Catholic countrymen walked under a bright, shining sun to the St. Adalbert Cemetery, where the yearly ceremonies of Decoration Day were to be performed.
The celebration was participated in by the united associations of Bohemian Catholic Cadets, the Veterans of Field Marshall Filipovic (First Company), and Camp No. 30 of the Bohemian-American Veterans of the Spanish-American War. These started out from the Cesko-Americka Sin (Bohemian-American Hall) on 18th Street at 8:00 A. M. and, accompanied by the music of the Veterans' Band, marched in a parade through the Bohemian Pilsen district.
While the members of the associations were boarding the train at the Depot, where they were joined by large numbers of unattached countrymen, quite as large a number of our countrymen and of Poles took streetcars to the end of the Milwaukee Avenue line, where they transferred to cars standing there ready to take them almost to the gates of the Cemetery. All the roads leading to the Cemetery were crowded by other visitors who came in automobiles and in horse-drawn vehicles of all descriptions. All of them were being accosted by ladies who had taken upon themselves the disagreeable duty of soliciting contributions for three different organizations: The Ceska Dobrocinna Spolecnost (Bohemian Charitable Association), which held there its usual "Tag Day," the organization of Polish Pani A Divek (Married and Single Women), which collected contributions for the war-devastated parts of Poland, and the united Bohemian Catholic Cadets organizations, who were collecting for the fund to finish Jurecek's splendid monument of Sv. Vaclav (St. Wenceslaws), which it is expected will grace the St. Adalbert Cemetery next year. There was, then, no lack of opportunity to do a good deed for those who, in addition to good will, had well-filled pocketbooks.
The ways to the Cemetery were lined with stands where the passers-by could purchase flowers, bouquets, flags, and other items for use at the Cemetery, in addition to the indispensable refreshments of various kinds.
Finally, after eleven o'clock, the roads became less crowded. The multitude had spread throughout the Cemetery, stopping at monumental mausoleums, beautiful statues, and simple crosses adorning the graves along the lanes, walking singly and in colorful groups, so that the whole cemetery gave the impression of a field full of blossoms over which, at short intervals, salvos were being fired in honor of those who died while fighting for the liberty of their new country.....
Finally, the whole Cemetery resounded with a funeral march played by the Veterans' Band at the main gate to the Cemetery, an indication that the parade had started marching from the old to the new part of the Cemetery, and to the speakers' platform erected upon the elevation directly in front of the Chapel.
The uniformed associations took their stand in the rear of the platform, posting their flags and standards on the sides, while the multitude stood in front. When the dignitaries had mounted the platform, the celebration proper began with a musical selection, after which the Right Reverend Val. Kohlbeck addressed the audience. He discussed the significance of the celebration, and said that, while it is sweet and proper to die for one's country, it is also proper for the country not to forget those who have given their lives for her. This, he said, is the reason why it is customary in all great nations to honor the memory of their heroes. This was done by the Romans, by the Greeks, by nations that followed them as leaders in civilization, and it is being done by present-day nations, who honor not only their generals, but also their private soldiers who have given their lives for the liberty and prestige of their country. America, too, has set aside a day to honor her fallen warriors. It is Decoration Day, a day on which good Americans assemble in parks of eternal peace in order to honor the memory of their dead--especially soldiers who have lost their lives in the service of the country--and to decorate their graves with flowers. Remarking that the religious and the civic significance of the day will be discussed by other speakers, he introduced, as the first speaker, the Right Reverend Innocent Kestl, vicar of the parish of Blahoslavena Anezka Ceska (Blessed Agnes the Bohemian).
After remarking that Decoration Day is principally a civic holiday, but that the Church and God had an important part in it, Right Reverend Kestl pointed to the fact that in this cemetery we are standing at the graves of members of three great armies of warriors. One of them is the army of our ancestors, who came into these parts when the country was wild, inhospitable, uninhabited prairies and morasses, where life consisted of one constant struggle with nature, the climate, and various local perils. They came here because of love of liberty and freedom, and waged these struggles in order to prepare the ground for a better, more peaceful and contented life for their descendants. All these first settlers are already in their graves. They were valiant fighters and the first to whom goes our appreciative remembrance. Quiet and peace cannot be had without preceding struggle, and even the most peaceful ones among them had to engage occasionally in a fight, because they lived among fighters who considered it their business to provoke fighting. Next to the Jews it was particularly the Slavs who never sought a fight. History tells us about Sv. Vaclav (St. Wenceslaus), against whom a war was declared by Radslav, the Duke of Zlicko. But St. Wenceslaus, in an endeavor to save the blood of his people, offered Radslav a duel which Radslav accepted and in which Radslav was defeated. This example should be emulated by all of us, because it implies that we should love others enough to protect them, to suffer for them. America, too, had to undertake many a struggle, but most of America's struggles were for liberty, for freedom, and many a noble, gallant soldier lost his life in these struggles. Among these were our countrymen, and they constitute the second army whose members fill the graves of this Cemetery. It is to them that our appreciative remembrance goes in the second place. The third army is composed of all others, all soldiers of Christ who fought their fights with their physical bodies, with the devil, and with the world. They also have found here their eternal peace. They have preceded us in order to serve us as an example. May they be blessed....
He concluded his speech by calling attention to the statue of St. Wenceslaus which will grace this beautiful Cemetery next year.
After another salvo, the Right Reverend Kohlbeck introduced Judge John Courtney, who spoke in English. Judge Courtney was substituting for the former Judge Owens, who had sent an excuse. Judge Courtney remarked that it was his particular pleasure to express his congratulations to the Slavs, and particularly to the Bohemians, on the wonderful progress they have made in their new homeland. This progress is due mainly to their love of God, of home, of family, and of education, all of which is apparent in their churches, beautiful dwellings, schools, and many civic and humanitarian institutions. If the Bohemian people will go on as they have so far, they will have a most beautiful future in America, for which the speaker gave them his very best wishes.
He was followed by the last speaker, Assistant State's Attorney Vaclav Vavra. He selected for his speech the following topic" Silence in a cemetery is golden, for more eloquent are the lives of those who rest therein than any words can be, because their death was nothing more than a transition from the earthly life into eternal glory". He discussed the significance of Decoration Day as a civic and national holiday, and said that the Catholics have an especially important reason to celebrate this American holiday because America was discovered by Catholics--such men as Columbus, Erickson, Joliet, Marquette, La Salle, Duluth, Hennepin, and others are witnesses to that fact. He finished by an appeal to all those present to give substantial contributions to the fund for the completion of the monument of St. Wenceslaus. In this monument the saint will not be shown with a sword in his hand, but as a prince of peace, with his right arm outstretched as in blessing, and the blessing is to his nation, the nation of St. Wenceslaus.
After another salvo, a community prayer was offered, led by the Right Reverend Innocent Kestl, and a musical selection gave the signal for disbandment.
Thus ended the beautiful and successful celebration of Decoration Day at St. Adalbert Cemetery. Many participants left for Chicago soon after. But many lingered in the vicinity of the graves in order to visit them again in the afternoon, and spend the beautiful day in the open, with nature, close to the silent, eternal peace....
Most impressive and stately were the Decoration Day ceremonies at this Cemetery, where so many of our countrymen sleep the sleep from which there is no awakening. This usually so quiet and melancholy necropolis was teeming with a sea of visitors from early morning on, and their numbers increased by every car arriving from Chicago. The ideal weather which prevailed this Decoration Day was the reason that more visitors passed through the Cemetery gates than in any other year.
The ceremonies were preceded by a parade which started at the parish church of St. Cyril and Methodius at West 50th Street and Hermitage Avenue at 9:30 A.M., and was led by Mr. Jos. R. Vojtech as marshal. The paraders included uniformed members of the Veterans of Field Marshal Baron Filipovic, the Slovak Veterans of Crown Prince Rudolph, led by Mr. Jos. Kovac, a police squad, and the bands bands of Mr. Ferd, Lhotak and Mr. Cerny. The parade marched through Town of Lake and 47th Street to Western Avenue, where streetcars were boarded which took the paraders to the Cemetery. Here the parade was awaited by a great multitude of people, who marched with it to the platform erected in the center of the Cemetery. There the ceremonies opened with the playing of the Bohemian National Anthem.
The multitude was welcomed by Mr. Jos. R. Vojtech, who was the principal Bohemian speaker. Mr. Vojtech is known as an accomplished orator, and his speech was excellent, indeed. Said he:
"Reverend Father, Judge McGoorty, dear friends! I welcome you in the name of all those who rest here in the Lord, and thank you for having come here in such large numbers to honor our departed friends. It seems that the attendance at this celebration is growing from year to year. We Bohemians and Slovaks celebrate Decoration Day, as good Americans, in the American manner. Our great Republic celebrates Decoration Day, the thirtieth day of May, in commemoration of the end of the Civil War, when, in 1868, the Commander in Chief of the American Armies, General Logan, issued an order by which the thirtieth of May was dedicated to the memory of heroes who had lost their lives in that war. Two years ago, from this platform, I talked about our brother Slavs, the gallant Serbs, Montenegrins, and Bulgarians, who fought so valiantly with their archenemy, the Turk, defeated him completely, and chased him almost entirely out of Europe, leaving him only a small piece of land from Chatalja to his Capital. Constantinople. What happened next? Through intrigue and misrepresentations, German diplomacy instigated a war between the former allies, Serbia and Bulgaria, with the result that the Turk has taken back almost everything he had previously lost to them. This year we have a war which is almost universal and every one of us follows eagerly the gigantic struggle between the nations of the world. One single ruler is waging a war for supremacy with practically the whole of Europe, and may be waging it with the whole world in the near future. And again the small Serbian nation is involved, solely because it is not willing to become destroyed and annihilated by a much stronger foe. If that aggressor should win this war, it would have most terrible results for our dear old country--for the people in beautiful Bohemia, rich Moravia and Silesia, as well as Slovakia. They would not be permitted to use their--our own--native language in the streets, would not be able to send their children to schools where their language is used, and so our nation would disappear.
"Hence, we again express the wish that our Slavic brothers may come victorious out of this terrible war. Here I should like to ask one thing, that next year, and all years thereafter, this may be a common celebration, participated in both by the Bohemians and the Slovaks. The way it is now is not the proper way, and the celebration loses a great deal of its dignity--in fact, it is being spoiled. The reason is that the Bohemian and the Slovak platforms are too close to each other. After a Slovak speech, the band may start playing, drowning the voice of the Bohemian speaker, or vice versa. It is still worse when things happen as they did last year. The Slovak celebration was through before the Bohemian one, and the Slovak parade marched with music right close by the Bohemian platform where the Reverend Thomas J. Bobal was just delivering his sermon. He had to stop and wait--a really unpleasant occurrence...
"I should like to ask our clergymen to help us bring this about. I should also ask all our Bohemian Catholic, uniformed and non-uniformed, men's organizations to participate, as bodies, in this celebration next year, and always in the future.
"Now, I thank you, our dear comrades--veterans, for visiting every year on this day the graves of our brothers. There are fourteen of them buried in this Cemetery. Decorate their last abodes with American flags! Now you will hear our English speaker, Judge McGoorty, and after him our Reverend Bobal will preach a sermon and offer prayers for all those who rest here in peace."
Mr. Vojtech's speech was listened to most attentively and made a deep impression on the whole audience. After the playing of "The Star-Spangled Banner," Judge McGoorty was introduced. His selection as speaker was a most fortunate one. Judge McGoorty is a very strong and sympathetic speaker, his talks are always profound, and all his thoughts well presented. His speech was marked with a great deal of patriotic enthusiasm, and was very flattering to us, the Bohemians. Therefore it is given here in full.
"The remembering of the dead is a beautiful custom. Today we have gathered together to honor the heroes who have given their lives for their country. This is a moment when patriotism is being awakened, when the love of one's country is being strengthened, when the atmosphere of American liberty inspires deeds of patriotism.
"Many times the question has been asked why the Bohemian people have migrated from their beautiful country, away from her lovely mountains, valleys, and rivers--a country rich in glorious history, a country whose literature entrances the whole world.
"There is only one answer to this question: On the western shores of the Atlantic Ocean a government has been created in which the people alone have the ultimate decision--this Western Republic, with a government of the people, for the people, and by the people. Since its very beginning, our country has beckoned to the people of all lands, telling them that this United States is a country of hope, a country of freedom, a country of opportunity. And thus, with people of other lands, the Bohemian people also have come to us. First the great Herman and Filip came, and hundreds and thousands have followed.
"There are today over 150,000 Bohemians in Chicago, and they have become a most important factor in our municipal life. The Bohemian people have been, and are doing a great civilizing work. They are building churches, schools, and colleges; have their own important newspapers printed in the Bohemian language; have their own music festivals. I have been many times entranced by their folk songs, the rich melodies of their music, the culture and civility of their people when gathered together to celebrate one of our American, or one of their own Bohemian, national holidays.
"This wonderful city of ours, with its cosmopolitan population composed of all nations of Europe, is the soul of the United States. No citizens of ours have been more loyal, and more gladly willing to defend this country when her Star-Spangled Banner was in danger than those whose cradle stood abroad. A few months ago I, as chief judge of the Superior Court, was presented by our veterans with a beautiful silk flag. It is one of my duties as a judge of the Superior Court to issue citizenship papers to our immigrants. It is an inspiring moment when the applicant for citizenship grasps the pole of that beautiful flag and, in the overcrowded courtroom, swears, with his right hand raised to the sky, allegiance to his new country.
"Today, our Bohemians, hand in hand and heart to heart with their American fellow citizens, celebrate the memory of our dead. Let us honor those dead for the sacrifices they have made, for the bravery they have proved, and may glory be to their memory. Inspired by their devotion we thank God that peace and happiness is supreme in this country at a time when the great countries of Europe are covered with a shroud of death. We are happy to enjoy friendly relations with our neighbors and with the whole world. May God strengthen the hand of our President in this most serious period in the history of the whole world, so that he may make the United States shine as an example for the whole world, that the blessings of peace may be always ours, that we may always remain loyal to the principles of liberty which we have inherited from our forebears, and which our constitution guarantees."
The inspiring talk of Judge McGoorty was followed by a choral rendition of the Slavic hymn presented by the group of singers led by Mr. F. B. Broma. The formal sermon of the celebration was preached by the Right Reverend Thomas J. Bobal of the Bohemian parish of St. Cyril and Methodius, one of our patriotic priests who never misses an opportunity to show his love of everything that is Bohemian. He gave a most excellent sermon, which was followed by prayers for the deceased who have found their last resting place in the Resurrection Cemetery.
The program on the platform was concluded by a musical selection played by Mr. Lhotak's band, and the multitude dispersed to visit the graves. The Bohemian veterans decorated the fourteen graves of their deceased comrades with flags in the American national colors, all others with flowers. They all, however, stopped in silence and remembered their departed friends with a kind, prayerful thought.
A Day of Touching Memories Tremendous Crowd at Memorial Day Celebration
It was exactly fifty-four years ago yesterday that General John A. Logan instituted the feast of Decoration Day during which the American nation piously recalled the memories of all its heroes who laid down their lives in the great internecine strife of 1861-1865. Since that day, May 30 has become one of the most significant national holidays, and although it was dedicated mainly to the memory of the fallen warriors, the American Republic adopted it as an 'all souls day,' and our cemeteries become the rendezvous of millions of sorrowing people who visit the graves of their dear departed ones to adorn them with flowers and to engage in melancholy thoughts. This beautiful custom was likewise adopted by the Bohemians of America, and the celebrations held in our Czech cemeteries are always the most beautiful and significant ones. Yesterday's celebration was indicative of this exalted piety expressed by the living toward their dead. The ideal weather brought everybody out of doors.
The Celebration at the Cesky Narodni Hrbitov (Bohemian National Cemetery)
This silent city of the dead, located in Irving Park, the resting place of almost 40,000 of our countrymen who sleep peacefully after having struggled with life, was a scene of buzzing activity through-out the day. The cemetery was literally flooded by humanity....Many thousands passed through the cemetery gate to decorate the graves of their dear ones and to honor those brave warriors who bled on the battlefields of freedom to liberate the black men. The extensive necropolis was changed as though a sorcerer's wand had touched it, changing it into a blossoming garden....and there was not a single grave which was bare. All this shows how our people gratefully remember those who lie below with hands crossed over their motionless breasts....
Within the green framework of the park and under the azure skies an annual celebration was held near the soldiers' monument. This year the program began somewhat earlier than usual. At about 10 A. M. there was a procession of our countrymen who previously assembled in the hall of the Cesko-Slovanske Podporujici Spolky (Czecho-Slavonic Benevolent Societies), 18th and May Streets, but who had to reassemble later in front of the buildings of the Utulna A Sirotcinec (Bohemian Old People's Home and Orphanage). In this procession there were Czech veterans of the Civil War headed by a Czech banker, Mr. Frantisek Stejskal, who, in spite of his eighty years, can still step very lively; a band under the leadership of Mr. Josef Kalaba; the representatives of the Cesky Narodni Hrbitov; Czech veterans of the Spanish-American War; soldiers of Bohemian extraction who took part in the World War; Czechoslovak Legionnaires accompanied by their own band, etc. These uniformed groups assembled around the soldiers' monument where the usual rites were held in honor of the fallen warriors who died while fighting under the Stars and Stripes. The ceremony consisted of several necrologues, the blowing of taps, and the firing of a salvo. The celebration itself then took place at the speaker's dais. In the meantime the crowds increased in such great numbers that the cemetery took on the 4appearance of a great encampment.
The program was opened by the vice-president of the Board of Delegates of the Hrbitov, Mr. Stanislav Simecek, who delivered a succinct but heart-felt speech of welcome. Mr. Simecek spoke very well; every word of his left a lasting impression upon his listeners. The band played a medley of American national songs; a recitation in English followed, and Miss Burian, an inmate of the Sirotcinec, acquitted herself well in this....The next item was a speech by County Judge F. S. Righeimer. Judge Righeimer is well known among our countrymen, having been raised in a Bohemian neighborhood....The Judge spoke briefly about the origin and the meaning of Decoration Day, touching upon the civic virtues of our Czech people. He waxed eloquent when mentioning the Republic of Czechoslovakia and its President Masaryk; he alluded to the great men of that country, and spoke appreciatively about the enthusiasm of the young men of Czechoslovak origin who, like their fathers in years past, rallied willingly under the Stars and Stripes whenever their threatened homeland issued a call to war. In conclusion, he pointed out the duties of the American people to them. All of our efforts should be concentrated in making it possible for these young brave men to get what is due them--recognition in the form of a bonus. It is not a question of a monetary compensation....for the sacrifices which were made by the American Army cannot be repaid, but behind the bonus there is a hidden judgment and an appreciation of these sacrifices, so that in reality it is a payment of a debt of honor. Enthusiastic applause rewarded the speaker....
The judge's speech was followed by another recitation in English delivered by an inmate of the Sirotcinec, Miss Harriet Stracek, and after the band played another number, the vice-president, Mr. Simecek, introduced the main speaker, Mr. Albert J. Havranek, a member of the editorial staff of the Denni Hlasatel and a foremost Bohemian-American bard. On this occasion Mr. Simecek touched upon the literary activities of Mr. Havranek, which is valued not only here in America, but also in the old homeland. Mr. Havranek's speech was characterized by a fluent and well articulated diction. It was as follows:
"As all other civilized nations of the world, the American nation, too, has set aside a number of days to commemorate significant milestones in its history. Of these days Decoration Day is one of the most important, for its purpose is to honor those who have passed away. The graves are being decorated on this day in every part of the United States, and there is no community in this great land of ours where the living do not honor their dead. In large metropolises such as Chicago, the pilgrimages to the cities of eternal repose and silence are very great....In humble and small communities these pilgrimages equal in sincerity, though not in number, the affection that the living hold for their dear departed ones.....
"We, too, have assembled today in this beautiful garden, which we may rightly consider one of the show places to which the Czechoslovaks of Chicago and of America may point with pride. And we have assembled here in order to gain an outlook into our own future [in this country]. We have also come here to plan for our future by reflecting upon that past in which we lost so many of our dear ones. We know very well that we owe the place which we now occupy in the great American unity to those who preceded us. And we would be thoroughly selfish if we did not remember them at least once a year, on a day when they should be remembered with respect, love, and gratitude. Those who have given their lives to make possible our ideals of freedom, liberty, and independence deserve special honors. Their blood flowed not only for their own age and generation, but for the freedom of all posterity....They abandoned all personal considerations, their homes and firesides, their wives, their children, and their parents, their relatives and friends to bring this supreme sacrifice.
"America has always had numberless thousands of such loyal sons in every period of her history. And we, as her sons and daughters, should be proud of that among those who thus have acted, who thus were ready to make the greatest sacrifice, there were immense numbers of immigrants, among these our own folk as is attested by the recorded history of the glories of this great Republic. That history reveals the fact that there was not a single instance in which our own people did not take part in a fight for freedom and liberty. And we are especially proud of the fact that in the last great wars in which the United States participated, there were many thousands of Czechoslovak people or people of Czechoslovak origin. They did not wait until they were called, but volunteered--indeed they were the first among the first--with love and enthusiasm to rally under the victorious Star-Spangled Banner. This they considered their duty, their greatest one. To them were later added many of our people who were drafted. And all of them fought as veritable lions to realize the great and beautiful ideals which later led to the creation of a Czechoslovak Republic upon the ruins of the Dual Monarchy. It was chiefly America that helped to build that [new] Republic. It was the American boys who, side by side with the rest of our Allies, shed their blood for the freedom, liberty, and democracy of all, and who upon the field of honor and glory laid down their lives not only under the gallantly streaming Star-Spangled Banner,but likewise under the Bohemian flag. Today we remember these great heroes with love and gratitude, and in the fullness of our hearts we think of them. In this cemetery some of them lie buried below the green sod.
"When we come to their graves to adorn them, let us pause in quiet thought. Let us pause not only above their graves, but above all the others. Let us realize also that they who lie buried here, though dead, are still alive and shall continue to live by their past deeds. Their heritage belongs not only to us, but to our children and to our children's children. They have left behind a challenge worthy of being followed. In whatever manner these men have lived, they have left good examples of their lives behind them.
"Of the lives of our dear departed ones whom we are honoring today, let us select for our own purposes the most beautiful and the most shining examples. If we do so, this annual pilgrimage to the cemeteries will have a meaning.
Instead of being a difficult and painful task, that pilgrimage will thus become an impetus to a better, more wholesome, more fruitful and more useful life.....And by that love, which we show them even after death, let us decide to keep our contact not only with the dead.... but also, and in a greater measure, with the living, with ourselves. Let us remember that we, too, will have to go soon enough, and that none of us will stay healthy very long. Therefore, as long as we are alive let us live in true brotherly and sisterly love; let us love one another; let us willingly and gladly bring sacrifices by which we may mutually support each other. Let us all work for the betterment and beautification of not only our own lives, but of the life of the whole, and after that is done we shall with a quiet mind and a clear conscience be able to visit these graves from year to year....."
After Mr. Havranek's address, which was greeted with a tremendous applause, Miss Vlasta Stipek, another inmate of our Sirotcinec, recited a poem in the Bohemian language. She gained the affections of everyone present by her recitation....The program ended with a musical number consisting of a medley of Bohemian national songs.....
The cemetery was really beautiful this year; it made a fine impression with its well-ordered decorations....All of these were finished in time for the celebration, and our cemetery resembled a great blossoming park. The delegates were congratulated by many who came here, and the tributes thus brought to them were well deserved.
The Celebration at Svaty Vojtech (Saint Adalbert's) Cemetery
The course of this celebration, held together with the Poles, was dignified, and was a continuation of our usual annual festivities....The great numbers that assembled here eagerly awaited the appearance of the Bohemian speakers, so that by listening to his words, they could immerse themselves in that sea of thoughts which is holy to everyone, and which has the same meaning for all irrespective of nationality and religion; in short, that the life which we are experiencing at present is different from that life which our departed dear ones have experienced. The gathering did not have to wait very long for the speaker, for Reverend F. W. Jedlicka soon appeared. With calm but impressive words, he opened the ceremony. He called attention to the purpose of Decoration Day, the honoring of the fallen warriors who gave their lives in order that liberty might live; but at the same time, said he, this day was set aside as a day of prayer, a sincere supplication for the eternal repose of the souls of friends, fathers, mothers, brothers, and sisters. Therefore this celebration is not only a civic one, but is also largely religious. The speaker then introduced the Reverend Placid Sasek, O. S. B. [Order of Saint Benedict] who, after having greeted the assembled, addressed them as follows:
"Dear friends! We have assembled here this day to honor the memory of those who are dear to us and who have passed into the Great Beyond. Wherever one's eye rests one may see a cross. At such a spectacle our heads bend down in deepest respect for that symbol which declares the endless love of God, Our Creator, a love which caused Him to descend among us to become a man; to redeem us from an eternal death by His most precious blood.
"There is yet another symbol which attracts our eyes. It is the flag that waves above our heads. When our eyes meet this symbol our thoughts invariably fly to that not far distant day when the bugles declared that a great war was to be waged in this wide land of ours. It was the call of the fatherland issued to her vigorous sons who were to defend not only their country, but the whole world against a common foe. It has now been more than five years since that trumpet call sounded, but how fresh is the memory of that day! For it was not only our new homeland that called us, a homeland which we learned to love so deeply, but our old homeland too, the land where our parents were born. It was that country that called us to arms, that called us to shake off the yoke, the enslaving shackles of a foreign usurper, which she bore and under which she had moaned for over three hundred years.
"Wherever a Czech heart beat, a sacrifice was brought; there was not a single Bohemian heart that would hesitate to make such sacrifice, be it even life itself....It was for that cause that we saw hundreds of our hopeful sons rallied under the flags and marching to the strains of [martial] music to meet the enemy on the battlefield. Hundreds, nay thousands, of our young men left for overseas. They were all in their full vigor, but alas, not all of them returned to their family hearths which they so enthusiastically abandoned when the call was issued. Not all of them returned, for it was the wish of the Almighty Father and the Author of the universe that they should lay down their lives as a burned sacrifice upon the altar of their fatherland. It was a great sacrifice, for it was the Son of God Himself who said: 'Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. And these heroes, whose graves we decorate today, loved their homeland so much that they did not hesitate to make the supreme sacrifice--to shed their life's blood. It was love, an exalted love for their country, which led them over the battlefields to the premature grave. And it is love again which leads us today so that in our feeble way we could at least honor the memory of these men, thus showing that we value their great souls, and their patriotic ardor for the land of their birth.
"But here rest not only our war heroes, who, when the bugles sounded and guns roared, fell in mortal combat....but also the unsung heroes of everyday life. I say they were heroes, for even these, in the quiet of their domestic hearths, have bravely and with undaunted courage performed their duties. It was love, said I, which led the brave young men to the battlefields and to death, but it was love again, and a love equally great, which inspired the fathers, the mothers, the husbands, and the wives, men and women, to care without surcease for their beloved ones who were entrusted to their loving care by the Heavenly Father. And because of that love they have not let up, no matter how difficult or laborious their work may have been, to care for those who were dependent upon them. It behooves us, therefore, to decorate their graves also; it is quite fitting that their graves be adorned with a cross, for even they have fought a good fight and finished the course of their lives, finally attaining their reward from the eternally just and good Judge. 'And now abideth faith, hope, charity [love], these three; but the greatest of these is charity,' says the great Apostle [Paul]. It was love that bound us to them while they lived here on earth, and it is love that urges us now to offer an ardent prayer for them and thus remain united.
"Therefore, after having disbanded in order to visit the individual graves of our dear ones, and after having decorated their graves with blossoms, let us remember their beautiful virtues which adorned their souls, and them let us kneel, and in the fullness of our hearts let us pray to them to intercede for us at the throne of the Most High, that He may give us strength to follow in their footsteps, to love God above all else and to love our fellowmen as we love ourselves, so that when some day we shall rest here ourselves our friends and acquaintances will stop and say: 'Here rests a man--or a woman--of rare virtues.'"
Celebration at the Cemetery of Vzkriseni Pane
(Resurrection of Our Lord)
Large crowds of our countrymen took part in the ceremonies at this cemetery. As usual the Bohemian organizations from the Parish of Svati Cyrill A Metodej (The Saints Cyrill and Methodius) paraded about the cemetery accompanied by their band....At 11 A. M. these organizations assembled at the main entrance to the cemetery and, headed by their band, proceeded to the speaker's dais. Here a festive program awaited them. The speakers were Reverend Tomas Bobal, parish priest of the above-named parish, who addresses a large Czechoslovak gathering every year in this, our newest Czechoslovak cemetery in Chicago, and Reverend Rehor Vaniscak. Both clergymen delivered lengthy addresses.....A field mass was then celebrated in a specially erected tent in the cemetery; this mass was celebrated here for the first time last year, and from the large attendance it became clear that our public greatly appreciated this innovation....
To Commemorate the Memory of Fallen Soldiers
A gold star was the insignia of a life sacrificed on the battle field. Such gold stars were in evidence in many Polish communities in Chicago. Statistics report that over 300 of the dead soldiers of Chicago were of Polish-American descent. In commemoration of these heroes, the Reverend Francis Kulinski, chaplain of the American army, organized the Fathers and Mothers Gold Star Society, for those whose sons gave their lives for the ideals of this country.
This society is the pride of the Polish element in America. Americans and people of other foreign elements cannot accuse the people of Polish descent, of refusing to enlist and participate in the war because of national discord on the battlefield. The purpose of this organization is to honor the memory of the dead soldiers by celebrating a Holy Mass, and decorating their graves annually. The most important aim however, is to erect a monument at Saint Adalbert cemetery, for an estimated cost of $25,000. Very few of our people are aware of the fact that there are many soldiers of Polish descent buried in different sections of our cemetery; and that with the passing of time, the memory of these great men will erase itself and leave the future generation ignorant of the circumstances which caused the great sacrifice made by the Polish-American youth, during the World's war. Coming to the aid of this Gold Star Society, in pursuit of this honorable objective, was his Emminence, Cardinal Mundelein, offering a sizeable section of land on Saint Adalbert Cemetery, for the distinct purpose of assembling the remains of all Polish soldiers who lost their lives in this war, and bury them in one designated section.In the future, this section will be used as a gathering place for the Polish people of Chicago, where in the presence of God, they can express their gratitude to those who sacrificed their life and suffered the hardship of war; here also, youth shall accumulate that spirit necessary to face the daily battle of life. Future generations shall, with pride, read of the fact that the Pole is able and competent to defend any just and worthwhile cause; and they shall be happy to know, Polish spirit, lies there, buried far from its native land, but in this humble manner makes the Polish name honorable.
In the coming year, the tenth anniversary of the Armistice, all America will observe this day, and with it, the Gold Star Society will introduce an important moment to the Polish element in Chicago, by unveiling a monument, the description of which follows: The cost of this monument is $25,000., it will be of Barre granite construction thirty three feet in height, the top of which will bear a group of three soldiers, one of which will be an American soldier, another an American marine, and the third, that of the Polish volunteer of General Haller's army. The height of these figures which are cast in bronze, is six and one half feet.
We appeal to all Poles of Chicago to help make this honorable gesture a complete success. At this time we find that we are still in need of $10,000. Therefore, on the fifteenth day of May, 1927 we shall conduct a tag-day, which, we believe, will create this necessary balance.
Yesterday morning we received the news of the death of Ladislaus Dyniewicz, who was one of Chicago's oldest settlers of Polish extraction; he was also one of the most outstanding pioneers of Polish journalisim; and was always considered a leader of the Polish-American element in Chicago, even when the Polish settlement was but a mere handful of Polish immigrants. He was editor of the oldest Polish newspaper in Chicago, a publication called the Polish Gazette. As an editor of the paper and at the same time the author of many Polish books he won the esteem and gratitude of all the Polish people in America. He well understood the urgent need of education and cultural development which he passed on to the many thousands of Polish immigrants through the medium of his newspaper and many of his books. With this thought in mind he established the first Polish book store in Chicago; he also operated a printing press, from which, sprung forth many thousand volumes of dictionaries, Novels, literature and historical text books, aiding in a great measure, to prepare the Polish immigrant in the fundamentals of good citizenship.
Because of the many years Mr. Dyniewicz has spent in this honorable enterprise, he can justly be called the Pioneer Polish journalist of America. Just prior to the first issue of his paper, the Polish Gazette, he made the following appeal to the Polish people in America: "It is not sufficient that the Polish element in America limit itself to the reading and distribution of newspapers and other reading matter edited and published in Europe."
The urgent need for a local, Polish publication in America is very apparent; one, which shall in the future, become a [gap] in which the Polish People of America can join hands in exchanging their views, and opinions; and where they can discuss in harmony, the problems of the day. "This was definitely his most important objective when introducing this newspaper service.
The late Ladislaus Dyniewicz was born on January 13, 1843 in a small town of Chalkew, which was at that time a Russian Province but is now Poland; after attending the elementary school in Poland, he left for Germany, where he attended a technical school and college, to become, a mechanical engineer. Upon completing his education he returned to his native Poland, where, with a heavy heart he sought in vain the freedom of speech and religion; and the possibility of [gap] national independence for his native land. Thus, in February 1866, he embarked for America on an old whaling ship, which voyage took three months over rough seas. He landed in New York, where he stayed but a short time when he left for Chatsworth, Illinois, which also was but a brief stay, and finally in 1867 arriving in Chicago where he found employment in a supervisory capacity, for a railroad, until the year of 1871, when he purchased a bookstore from Peter Kiolbasa, (who very often was referred to as "Honest Pete;" then treasurer of the City of Chicago) which was located on Noble street, directly opposite the Holy Trinity Church. This location became the home of the Polish Gazette, a weekly, which, under the capable guidance of the late Ladislaus [gap], reached, at that time, the very commendable circulation of 26,000 copies 3a week.
The funeral service will be held February 13, 1928, from the late residence, 4533 North Albany Ave., then at the Holy Trinity Church. Interment at St. Adalbert's Cemetery.
One hundred and fifty years ago, the original colonies in America numbered thirteen; these colonies announced to the world their independence of the British rule, which resulted in the war for the freedom of this country, in which our national heroes Casimir Pulaski and Thaddeus Kosciuszko became known in the history of America.
From the time of Kosciuszko and Pulaski, the people of Polish descent participated in the various wars of America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, the Spanish-American War, and the World War in which thousands of Polish youths had taken part.
In honor and memory of these heroes who lost their lives on the battlefields in France, a monument was erected by the Polish-American mothers and fathers of the Gold Star Society, who have for the past several years collected funds for this monument.
This monument will be consecrated and unveiled on July 4, 1928, at Saint Adalbert cemetery in Niles, Illinois, near Saint Hedwig orphanage. It will be consecrated by His Eminence, Cardinal George Mundelein, who also donated the foundation for the monument, which cost about one thousand dollars.
Four Gold Star Mothers who lost their sons in the World War will unveil the monument. Following the unveiling, the children from Saint Hedwig's orphanage will sing Polish selections, accompanied by church and national choirs.
Speeches will be made in both the Polish and English language. The English speakers will be His Eminence Cardinal Mundelein, Mr. Charles S. Deneen, United States Senator of Illinois, Brigadier General Paul. B. Malone, of Fort Sheridan Illinois, and Admiral Howard P. Savage, of the Great Lakes Naval Training Station; the Polish speakers will be Mr. J. Lipowicz, State Senator of Buffalo New York, the only Polish Senator in New York State, who organized and is the secretary of the Mothers and Fathers Gold Star Society; George Menkicki, and many others.
The program will begin at 1:30 p. m. with a parade starting at Raven Avenue and North-West Highway, near the Norwood Park "L" station, and the Chicago Northwestern Railroad station. The parade will be lead by the United Stated Army unit from Fort Sheridan; The United States Navy unit from Great Lakes Naval Training Station; The National Guard of the 33rd division; veterans of the Civil War, Spanish-American War, and World War; reserve officers of the Haller Polish army, and various American Legion Posts, the members of which belong to many nationalities.
Escorts for prominent guests will be furnished by the Chicago and State police departments. The escorts for His Eminence, Cardinal Mundelein, will be the Catholic Circle, John Nering, president as leader. Escorts for General James E. Stuart, 87 years old, Brigadier General of the Civil War, Martin Powroznik, representing the citizens' committee in the lead.
Many of the following prominent Polish people will participate in the parade, John J. Jaranowski, Mayor of Calumet City; Edmund K. Jarecki, Judge of Cook County; Stanislaus Klarkowski, Judge of the Circuit Court; Peter H. Schwabe, Judge of the Municipal Court; Professor Miecislaus S. Szymczak, Superintendent of the Forest Preserves', Frank Peska, City Prosecutor; August Kowalski, Vice President of North-Western State Bank; Lawrence H. Przybylski, President of Metropolitan State Bank; John Brenza, President of Polonia Coal Company; Paul Drymalski and many other public officials of the State County and City, including William Hale Thompson, Mayor of Chicago and Alderman, Max Adamowski, Frank Ringa, Joseph Petlak, and Stanley Adamkiewicz.
Google Page of book - Niles: The Early Years - Several pages have excellent images of Saint Adalbert Cemetery.
Chapter three Village of Niles document - Formation of Saint Adalbert
Village of Niles - Centennial History Publication